Psychotherapy Guidebook: Easy to Understand Guide Features Descriptions of 255 Different Therapies
In , Adler wrote: It is almost impossible to exaggerate the value of an increase in social feeling. The individual feels at home in life and feels his existence to be worthwhile just so far as he is useful to others and is overcoming common instead of private feelings of inferiority. Neurotic and psychotic patients strive for security and superiority at the expense of others. To a greater or lesser degree, depending on the severity of the disturbance, they have, in the construction of their life goals, alienated themselves from their fellow man.
In the psychotherapy group, members develop social interest and become aware of how their attitudes of fear, distrust, jealousy, oversensibility for self, and undersensibility for others do not produce the desired result — respect, acceptance, and friendship. This therapeutic group is based on equality of all members, with the therapist as a model demonstrating respect and understanding. In this setting group members, frequently for the first time, observe social interest in an authority figure. Either through the insight obtained by the interpretations of the therapist and group members or sometimes without clear awareness of what is going on, they discover that feeling at home in the group gives them a new security.
Feeling secure, they dare to relate to others with mutual empathy, and find satisfaction in productive cooperation. To create a cooperative group out of isolated, discouraged, frequently ineffectual strangers is the task of the therapist and one in which his behavior and personality have the strongest impact. Fortunately, he is aided by the innate capacity of each human being for social interest and whatever degree of social interest already exists, no matter how distorted.
In social participation, rudimentary and misdirected social feelings slowly evolve or suddenly burst forth into attitudes of mutual helpfulness, tolerance of differences, awareness of similarities through empathy, and ability for purposeful communication. All of this leads to understanding and shared feelings. It is within this context that the distortions and prejudices incorporated in the life-style during childhood are then examined.
The Adlerian therapist assumes that each individual in the group has a life-style, a cognitive framework that enables him to understand the world and select behavior that will advance him toward his goals of safety, security, self-esteem, and success, and that will protect him from insecurity, danger, and frustration. All of this is more or less erroneous, depending on whether the individual is more neurotic or more healthy.
Adlerians believe that those significant experiences the individual chooses to remember reflect his opinion of the world and himself. What he chooses to remember also reflects the path of behavior he has selected for himself to cope with a complicated world. The distortions, that is, mistakes in his life-style, are interpreted to the individual and he is encouraged within the social context of the group to correct these mistakes by substituting private meanings and behavior with socially useful ones.
Increase in security and self-esteem results not only from corrections in lifestyle, but also from the experience of being useful to the members of the human community of which the therapeutic group is a microcosm. With a few exceptions, all types of patients profit from group psychotherapy. For many, it is best to add group psychotherapy to individual psychotherapy, for then individual psychotherapy becomes more supportive and group psychotherapy more interpretive. Group psychotherapy is inadvisable for very depressed patients and for psychopaths. Depressed patients are overly sensitive to attack by other group members and the danger of suicide is always present.
Psychopaths often exploit people and may damage the other members of the group. For borderline cases, personality disorders, and neurotics, the group is a valuable tool for support, self-understanding, and new modes of behavior. The Creative Aggression CAG approach to individual and group psychotherapy is a body of theoretic principles and practical clinical methods that minimize, by rendering harmless, the hostile, hurt-oriented component of human aggression.
CAG offers new ways of maximizing the playful, assertive, impactful, cathartic, information-rendering and affection-instigating effects of open and honest confrontations between intimates — friends, family members, spouses, lovers, and coworkers. The Fair Fight System provides angry and conflicted intimates with rules, rituals, and coping techniques that reduce the fear of aggression, avoid hurtful hostility, and facilitate basically good-willed combatants to fight fairly — not against each other, but for improvements in their relationship.
CAG is differentiated by definition and by origin from so-called Assertion Training. CAG was developed and reported on before , long before others took the assertive — I call it impact — aspect out of the context of the Creative Aggression principles. Also, Assertion Training considers anger and aggression unnecessary as in Rational-Emotive Therapy , without providing methods of constructive utilization of this basic human energy source.
The Creative Aggression approach, however, helps patients and therapists to utilize — rather than to defensively deny, displace, or overcontrol — frustration, anger, and hostile feelings. As the innovator of Creative Aggression Therapy, one of the roots of the approach was my own personality, including my way of confronting, fair fighting, and pressuring for changes. Another stimulus toward the development of CAG was my professional training. Predoctorially, I worked with both Kurt Lewin and Robert Sears, and both men influenced my interest in the psychology of aggression.
My own doctoral research in impressed me with the intensity of play aggression in young children. In the late s, I sought further post-doctoral training as well as personal analysis from the late Adler student Lydia Sicher. Sicher reinforced me in my search of evolving clinical methods to put my pro-conflict ideas into practice, especially in group psychotherapy and couples and family therapy.
During this time, my own creativity started and, then, my contribution of central significance: showing people how to utilize conflict and aggression creatively. In my early group therapeutic practice , I developed the clinical art of utilizing group processes — including my leader role — to maximize the mutual aide, the peer-therapeutic effects, in group therapy. In observing mis peer-influence factor, I was repeatedly struck by the relative failure of the nice-guy type of interaction — one might say the classical Rogerian stance of uncritical, unconditional positive regard — to move the patients through their resistances and on to new experiences.
In contrast, I noticed that the more critical-aggressive confrontations, even fights — between patients themselves and between patients and therapists — tended to initiate new attitudes and opened people up to consider alternative ways of solving conflicts. The introduction of the time-extended marathon group schedule in provided longer-lasting group sessions in which the trust necessary for the open display of aggression had a chance to develop. CAG exercises are designed to reduce the stress due to the basic human fear of aggression within oneself and from others.
I do not believe in tranquilizing, distracting, or numbing human aggression. I do not trust that aggression can be reliably held down, and even if and when it is renounced, the price often is detachment. I view aggression as the most effective force in shaping oneself and the behavior of others. With CAG, clients learn and practice constructive ways of utilizing a variety of fight styles. Their aggressive behavior is shaped by the therapist to minimize hurtful hostility and enhance and maximize open, authentic, information-yielding communications.
It provides a step-by-step procedure for two or more partners of an intimate, ongoing association to constructively express criticism of one another and to assertively demand and negotiate changes for the better in the quality of their emotional or material interdependence. It is the most effective Creative Aggression technique, especially in couple therapy. The capacity to conduct a mutually productive, exciting and even joyful fight for change is proof that the student has learned all of the other procedures of the aggression control system.
Every one of the Creative Aggression exercises is an essential preparatory step to ready the opponents for the Fair Fight for Change. The preparatory exercises, such as the H-type rituals, effectively remove hurtful hostility, punitiveness, vengeful smarting as well as irrational emotionality, such as raging anger, so that the fight for change can be not only fair but also realistic and rational.
Other preparatory exercises, such as the info-impacts, remove hostility-escalating generalities and rigid stereotyping. They also render much information about options, beltlines, and non-negotiable territory. The fight for change, a fifteen-step procedure, is a communication training technique aimed at establishing a process for dealing with any one specific issue. It is a zeroing-in on a single issue, gripe, or "beef about a specific behavior pattern with a demand for change by one partner or the other.
The CAG system is practiced in both individual and group psychotherapy. Its major applications are in the areas of self-improvement, pairing where divorced adults are helped to improve their dating and mating skills , couples, and family therapy. CAG-trained therapists, as well as teachers and counselors, have effectively worked with co-workers in offices and factories, and with public school and university students.
The CAG approach lends itself ideally to the reeducation of the A type abrasive personality, as well as the fight-phobic fearful personality. The CAG approach has also been found psychiatrically effective with the difficult passive-aggressive patients; CAG brings indirect hostility into the open where it can be dealt with in a rational manner.
Last but possibly of first importance is the use of CAG techniques in self-improvement and psychological self-help. Self-respect can be increased, which also facilitates decision-making. AI means oneness, meeting, harmony. KI means mind, energy, spirit, the spirit of the universe. DO means road, path, way of life. Aikido might be translated: the way of harmonizing with the spirit of the universe, or a way of unifying life energy. Aikido is derived from the Japanese martial arts, the disciplines of the samurai.
In its practical application, Aikido is a combat and self-defense art, yet it is more than a physical discipline; into its techniques are woven elements of philosophy, psychology, and dynamics. Aikido is one of the most recent Japanese martial arts. He mastered many different combat arts, including various schools of jiujitsu, swordsmanship, and the use of the staff and spear. He came to believe that true self-defense is not winning over others, but winning over the discord within oneself.
True budo is to accept the spirit of the universe, keep the peace of the world, correctly produce, protect, and cultivate all being in Nature. In , Aikido was introduced to Hawaii and later to the mainland. Today there are Aikido schools and clubs in most major cities and universities of Japan and the United States. There are literally hundreds of Aikido techniques. For the author, there are three basic aspects of Aikido training — centering, energy flow, and harmony.
Centering practice includes focus on the lower abdomen. Beginning Aikido students learn to keep neck and shoulders relaxed and to integrate all movements from their center lower abdomen. In the East, the abdomen is considered a major center for meditative practices, and the storehouse of vital energy in the body. It is also the area of physical balance and psychological stability.
The physical and psychological aspects of centering are thought to be virtually one and the same. When we are emotionally or mentally tense, our bodies are also tense, and vice versa. And it is also true that we can become more calm and centered through physical discipline, and this will result in greater mental and emotional balance and calmness. Energy flow is essential in Aikido practice. Conscious mind-body coordination is basic to all Aikido training. This is taught through the concept of energy and forming a mental image of energy flow. Students are taught to visualize energy extended out from the hands and fingers.
Relaxed, flowing movement is stressed rather than jerky muscular movement. Harmony is a central theme of Aikido. Stress is placed on flexibility and grace. Essential in Aikido practice is the attitude of working with a partner rather than fighting or competing against an opponent. Aikido can help the therapist in relation to violent or potentially violent patients. Howard Pashenz, a psychotherapist and Aikido black belt, has given several examples of this practical use of Aikido with patients. According to Pashenz, one possible use of Aikido training combined with therapy is to begin to develop a relationship with those who ordinarily refuse to become involved with any adult authority figure; for example, acting out adolescents.
Another such group is bright underachievers who have built up blocks against verbal situations. Also, Aikido can be useful along with psychotherapy, in either a supportive role or as a supplemental, nonverbal form of therapy in its own right. Traditional Aikido practice itself stresses relaxed, supple movements, free from any form of rigidity, whether physical or mental. This training can be extremely effective in eliminating habitual physical tension as well as psychological rigidity. It can help patients deal with fears and aggressive impulses, and develop a more positive self-image.
The Ajase Complex stems from an original theory by Dr. Heisaku Kosawa — , considered the pioneer of psychoanalysis in Japan. As Freud found the basis for the Oedipus complex in Greek mythology, so Kosawa found the legendary background for the Ajase Complex in a parable from the ancient Buddhist scriptures — specifically, in the tale of Ajase, revolving around the Buddhist precept of reincarnation. Hearing of her desire, a prophet told her that, within three years, a mountain hermit would die a natural death and start his life afresh to become her son.
However, the impatient queen elected to kill the hermit before the three years had passed. Soon, as the prophet had said, she conceived and gave birth to a boy Ajase. He helped unseat his father, then had him imprisoned and deprived of all sustenance. But Ajase soon learned that his mother was surreptitiously feeding his father honey, which saved him from starvation. The son then became so angry with his mother that he made a move to kill her, but was dissuaded from this act by a minister.
At that moment, Ajase was attacked by a severe guilt feeling and became afflicted with a dreadful skin disease characterized by so offensive an odor that no one dared approach him. Only his mother stood by and lovingly nursed him back to health. Forgiven by the mother he had intended to slay, Ajase was awakened to a real love for her and discarded his grudge against her.
His mother, in turn, was able to develop a natural maternal affection for her son beyond original self-centered attachment to him. In his paper, Kosawa discussed the psychological peculiarity of the Japanese, as evidenced by their acceptance of oral dependency toward the mother, and repression of the hatred and resentment of the mother that accompanies this tendency. In the case of psychoanalytical therapy for Japanese patients, the mother transference the emotional attitude the patient has toward the therapist, who serves as a mother substitute conflict with the therapist appears at a comparatively early stage, while therapeutic regression to an oral-ambivalent state takes place easily, particularly when compared with the process of psychoanalytic therapy for Western patients.
Parallel to this psychic process, the patient experiences the feeling, peculiar to Japanese, of being aggressive and yet being forgiven, from which develops a guilt feeling over being forgiven and a need to make restitution for having harbored an evil intent. This Japanese type of guilt feeling is quite different, Kosawa states, from the guilt feeling of castration anxiety, fear of punishment, which Freud embodied in his theory of the Oedipus complex. Alcoholics Anonymous is a fellowship of men and women who share their experience, strength and hope with each other that they may solve their common problem and help others to recover from alcoholism.
The only requirement for membership is a desire to stop drinking. There are no dues or fees for A. This statement, usually read at the beginning of A. Identification with the common problem is what Bill W. After he shared his experience with Ohio surgeon Dr. Bob, he was able to get sober. Both had been considered hopeless alcoholics, yet neither man was to drink again. That was in Doctors and other informed persons may clearly see the symptoms and give helpful guidance, but the alcoholic makes the determination that brings acceptance and a desire to stop drinking.
Then, these facts can be pointed out to the problem drinker: medical testimony indicates that alcoholism is a progressive illness, that it cannot be cured in the ordinary sense of the term, but that it can be arrested through total abstinence from alcohol in any form. At an A. As other alcoholics describe their lives under the influence of alcohol, the newcomer realizes that no theories or generalities are being presented.
These are people who understand because they have lived through these emotions and experiences. If they have lived through the same emotions and experiences of degradation and despair, there can be no judgment involved. I know all the effort which this stoical education demands. In other words, Dubois interpreted the Stoics as emphasizing the role of autosuggestion in the cause and cure of emotional disturbance. I do not hesitate to persuade my patients to neglect the painful phenomena. The idea is not new; the stoics have pushed to the last degree this resistance to pain and misfortune.
I could quote numerous examples which show the possibility of suppressing more or less rapidly and often once for all such painful phenomena. Honest consolation becomes in itself a remedy, and everything that lifts up the soul strengthens the body. My studies have saved me; I attribute my recovery, my return to health, to philosophy; I owe my life to it, but that is the least of my obligations. If I affirm it with acerbity the spot is increased by a new circle. There I am, busied with my pain, hunting for means to get rid of it, and the spot only becomes larger.
If I preoccupy myself with it, if I fear the consequences, if I see the future gloomily, I have doubled or trebled the original spot. He who knows how to suffer suffers less. He accepts the trouble such as it is, without adding to it the terrors that preoccupation and apprehension produce. Like the animal, he reduces suffering to its simplest expression; he even goes further; he lessens the trouble by the thought, he succeeds in forgetting, in no longer feeling it.
In clinical practice, Dubois rejected the use of hypnosis, during the height of its popularity, and resorted instead to vigorous psychological education and Socratic dialogue, of this kind, designed to instil hope of cure in his clients, build confidence, and directly undermine their irrational beliefs and negative philosophies of life. Despite his emphasis upon cultivating a rational and stoical philosophy of life, Dubois has little more to say about specific Figure 1.
He has thought worse for being ignorant of the mechanism of thought; the neglect of these [deterministic] principles of psychology renders him less indulgent to the faults of others, without making him severe enough towards himself. In their hands, hypnosis or self-hypnosis could serve as an additional means to reinforce the internalization of healthy, rational beliefs.
Dubois himself, though not a hypnotist, seems grudgingly to accept the relevance of his observations on autosuggestion to the practice of hypnotism. We are easily made victims by these auto-suggestions, as they are called today, when we have some plausible reason to believe them. I have often felt heat radiating from a stove which I was passing. I had understood that it was heated; when touched it was cold.
There are people who have felt the oil and smelled the odour of petroleum when lifting a new lamp which has never contained any. Araoz and others effectively resurrected the old theory that holds that many forms of emotional disturbance, such as anxiety or depression, can be seen as partly due to the effects of negative autosuggestion or self-hypnosis. This notion was common in Victorian psychotherapy, and traces of it can even be found as far back as the s in the writings of James Braid, the founder of hypnotherapy Braid, If it had been, then they may have found it a useful analogy for their cognitive theory of emotional disturbance.
Your response is both a judgemental and a moral act. As we have seen, Dubois himself did not combine the techniques of suggestion and autosuggestion with the theory of emotional disturbance as being due to autosuggestion. We can, however, find an example of an early twentieth century school of psychotherapy that not only saw autosuggestion as both the cause and cure of neuroses, but also attempted to assimilate the philosophical precepts of Stoicism to this view.
Though his justification for this conclusion seems somewhat unclear, he could probably have found more material to explain and support it. We know, indeed, that the whole human organism is governed by the nervous system, the centre of which is the brain—the seat of thought. In other words, the brain, or mind, controls every cell, every organ, every function of the body. That being so, is it not clear that by means of thought we are the absolute masters of our physical organism and that, as the Ancients showed centuries ago, thought—or suggestion—can and does produce disease or cure it?
Pythagoras taught the principle of auto-suggestion to his disciples. The Ancients well knew the power—often the terrible power— contained in the repetition of a phrase or formula. The secret of the undeniable influence they exercised through the old Oracles resided probably, nay, certainly, in the force of suggestion.
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These Pythagorean sayings, and those derived from the Greek Oracles, may well be the precursors of the Stoic precepts dogmata , which, as we shall see, appear to have performed a similar function. Imagination, indeed, governs all of the forces of sensibility, while the latter, in its turn, controls the beating of the heart, and through it sets in motion all vital functions; thus the entire organism may be rapidly modified. The dominating role of the imagination. The results to be expected from the practice of auto-suggestion must necessarily be limited to those coming within the bounds of physical possibility.
We must fight fire with fire, use empowering images to counteract enfeebling ones. Even the Stoics did not depend solely upon the abstract power of reason. REBT, according to Ellis, was a novel approach because it encouraged clients to realize how negative autosuggestion is affecting them before they proceed to use positive counter-suggestions to change things.
Up to the present you have wielded this weapon unconsciously, and made bad suggestions to yourselves, but that which I have taught you will prevent [you] from ever again making bad autosuggestions, and if you should do so, you can only beat yourself upon the breast, and say: It is my own fault; entirely my own fault! The most important part of his method is that clients should come to share the same insight. It is true that clients become emotionally disturbed largely because of their own negative thinking or autosuggestion, and that is why they sometimes snap out of their depressions and anxieties quite quickly—if temporarily— when they are induced to do some kind of positive thinking or autosuggestion.
In fact, this kind of Pollyannaism can be as pernicious as the negative claptrap which clients tell themselves to bring about neurotic conditions. In REBT we do not merely stress positive thinking or autosuggestion, but a thoroughgoing revealing and uprooting of the negative nonsense which clients endlessly repeat. Unless she is forcefully led to challenge and undermine her own negative thinking, as in effective cognitive psychotherapy, she is still a gone goose.
Hence, he and Lestchinsky dedicated a whole chapter of their short book The Inner Discipline to expounding the basic therapeutic principles of Stoicism and its relevance to psychotherapy. Although Hellenistic philosophy in particular, and, indeed, much of classical philosophy in general, can be seen to prefigure modern cognitive—behavioural psychotherapy, like Ellis and Beck almost half a century later, Baudouin and Lestchinsky saw Stoicism as the ancient precursor of rational psychotherapy par excellence.
One of the most original characteristics of Stoicism was the stress it laid upon a vigorous discipline, upon the education of the character. That is why, in the present handbook, we select Stoicism for special consideration from among the classical philosophies. Exercises must be assiduously practised, daily if possible.
The yoga of the Hindus was founded upon the principle of daily training. The Stoics were likewise familiar with the value of regular exercise of the will. In the latest form of psychotherapeutics, autosuggestion, stress is also laid upon diligent and daily practice. However, he quotes both Epictetus and Marcus Aurelius over and over again, at much greater length than either Beck or Ellis, and clearly outlines the basic therapeutic philosophy of Stoicism.
The basic principle that reminds us to carefully distinguish internal thoughts from external facts seems to be more fundamental to Stoicism than the maxim of Epictetus quoted most often in modern CBT literature, which attributes emotional disturbance to our judgements rather than to things themselves. Baudouin and Lestchinsky also recognize the relevance of other features of Stoicism for modern psychotherapy to a much greater extent than either Beck or Ellis.
They discuss the Stoic psychology of self-knowledge, determinism, and their attitude of acceptance and resignation toward that which is outside our control. In the first place it enables us to gain an accurate knowledge of ourselves and of things. Knowledge is power. We cannot but be interested to note that, in our own day, Dubois founds his therapeutic method of moralisation upon the same principle of determinism. But our reason has an additional task in this struggle with ourselves. We can use it in the form of the rational persuasion which Dubois has organised into a therapeutic system.
We shall do well to remember that the Stoics had grasped the importance of this method, for their advice was that we should practise a pitiless analysis, that we might convince ourselves of the worthlessness of the objects towards which passion was leading us astray. The Greeks and Romans used different words to describe different aspects of reasoning.
Moreover, their emphasis upon the role of exercise and training, which these authors note, clearly implies that they appreciated various processes were involved in reasoning, some of which required repeated practice in order to instil change. As we shall see, Stoicism consists of both cognitive and behavioural exercises that constitute part of a therapeutic lifestyle and daily regime. Moreover, despite his partial criticism of the philosophical approach to therapy, Baudouin acknowledged the value of Stoic contemplative exercises. Baudouin recognized that this particular method of philosophical contemplation, as a form of psychotherapy, was also fundamental to Stoicism.
Both therapists illustrated the contemplation of determinism to the layman simply by reference to the expansion of modern science. Science, a philosophical knowledge of the world, discloses the existence of universal determinism, discloses the never-ending chain of causes and effects, and thus proves to us how numerous are the things which are not in our power.
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Contemplation of determinism tends to promote a sense of emotional equanimity in many people, as the Stoics observed. Nothing should be done without a purpose. We must not wish for the impossible, or try to do what is impossible. We must not run our heads against a wall, for we shall only injure ourselves without breaking down the wall. If we follow these recommendations, we shall certainly economise our energies!
The Stoic novitiate probably began his training by learning both to endure the fear and pain caused by illusory harm, and to renounce the craving and sensory pleasure caused by illusory gain. Instead, he learns to place absolute value upon the cultivation of wisdom sophia and mental well-being eudaimonia , the only things that truly matter in terms of the philosophical art of living. The price we pay for becoming overly preoccupied with external events, a natural human weakness, is that we tend to become forgetful of our own attitude toward life, and neglect to look after our own mental health.
Moreover, Baudouin and Lestchinsky recognized that the Stoic concept of our sphere of control and responsibility offers a possible philosophical solution to the issue of morbid rumination over the past and the unhealthy and excessive sense of guilt, self-blame, etc. They involve a futile expenditure of energy. Let us see to it that we do better in the future, but let us cease to deplore having done ill in the past.
Phocylides, the poet and sage who lived in the sixth century B. If guilt serves a purpose, it is surely to motivate us to change today, in order to prepare for tomorrow, but not to condemn ourselves to endless complaining about yesterday. The true locus of our control, and therefore our primary concern, is the here and now, from moment to moment. It is in the present moment that lessons are learned from the past, and preparation is made for the future.
Imagination and opinion are pre-eminently to be classed among the things which are within our power. The Stoics held the same view, though on a somewhat higher plane. Instead of lamenting because we cannot change our lot, let us learn to love it. Happiness and unhappiness are, to a great extent, matters of imagination and opinion. Moreover, as far as I am aware, this book is the only example of a detailed discussion of this topic in the literature of twentieth century psychotherapy, and certainly it both predates the writings of Beck and Ellis and makes more explicit reference to Stoic therapy.
In doing so, we have already had the opportunity to mention some of the most important Stoic authors, to introduce some of the basic precepts of Stoicism, and to touch briefly on the kind of therapeutic exercises employed in ancient philosophy, such as the contemplation of determinism. We are ready to focus our attention directly on the general concept of philosophical therapy in antiquity, and the nature of Stoic theory and practice in particular.
It seems likely that some therapeutic concepts and practices, as we shall see, were already in use by the followers of one of the very earliest philosophers, the enigmatic Pythagoras of Samos ca. The precursors of certain therapeutic concepts may perhaps even have been in use among the mystery cults, such as Orphism, from which Pythagorean philosophy probably evolved.
Diogenes and the Cynics placed greater emphasis upon the practical lifestyle of the philosopher, whereas Plato was more concerned with sophisticated philosophical dialogue. It is important to understand, however, that ancient philosophy in general had a practical emphasis that was lost over the centuries, and that most philosophers were more concerned with self-improvement than with theoretical debate for its own sake.
The name Cynic derives from the Greek word for dog, and refers to the frank and often abrasive manner in which Cynics would challenge others and encourage them to adopt a more philosophical life. Diogenes of Sinope, the most celebrated of the Cynics, reputedly explained that while other dogs bite their enemies, the Cynic bit his friends to save them. Likewise, Antisthenes reputedly mused that physicians must sometimes use bitter remedies to cure their patients ibid. As we shall see, the Cynics were very closely aligned with the Stoics, and may be seen as their more outlandish precursors.
Indeed, throughout his Discourses, Epictetus repeatedly refers to Diogenes of Sinope in the same breath as Socrates, using both as examples of the ideal philosophical sage and role models for young Stoics. These schools, or sects, flourished to varying degrees. Thus began a long-standing tradition of competition between increasingly sophisticated and well-organized philosophical schools, some of which endured for many centuries as centres of learning in the ancient world.
This was perhaps a foretaste of the militaristic theme that runs throughout much Stoic literature, where life is seen as a kind of psychological battle to be fought with philosophical weapons. It is, therefore, important to realize that many Stoics viewed themselves as the true followers of Socrates, and revered the story of his life and death, holding him up as a role model approximating to their ideal of the enlightened sage.
Stoicism is self-consciously a Socratic sect, therefore, and the Stoics prided themselves on being more faithful to the spirit of the original Socratic art of living than their rival schools. Indeed, for centuries, many educated Romans employed Greek as the language of science and philosophy. For example, The Meditations of the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius, one of the most revered and influential Stoic texts, was written in Greek, although its author spoke Latin.
Greek philosophers were highly respected and travelled to teach in Rome. We might also include reference to the survival of certain traces of the very ancient Pythagorean sect in the Hellenistic period. As we shall see, in discussing Stoic philosophy, most of these other movements must be taken into account. It was not unusual for some philosophers to draw on ideas and techniques from rival schools. In particular, the Stoics refer favourably to aspects of Platonism, Cynicism, Epicureanism, and Pythagoreanism, though criticizing rival schools in other respects. Psychotherapy in Hellenistic philosophy All of these schools, to varying degrees, derive from Socrates, though they responded to his teachings in different ways, and in combination with other influences.
All appear to have practised techniques and strategies designed to control unhealthy emotions and impulses and to achieve enlightenment and peace of mind. From this viewpoint, philosophy appears as a remedy for human worries, anguish, and misery brought about, for the Cynics, by social constraint and conventions; for the Epicureans, by the quest for false pleasures; for the Stoics, by the pursuit of pleasure and egoistic self-interest; and for the Skeptics, by false opinions. Whether or not they laid claim to the Socratic heritage, all Hellenistic philosophers agreed with Socrates that human beings are plunged in misery, anguish, and evil because they exist in ignorance.
Evil is to be found not within things, but in the value judgements which people bring to bear upon things. People can therefore be cured of their ills only if they are persuaded to change their value judgements, and in this sense all these philosophies wanted to be therapeutic. Struggling to cope with the rate of change, people sought a means of overcoming their emotional distress. In this respect, as many historians have commented, this period in history resembles our own, except that modern information technology has replaced ancient trade routes as a source of information that is sometimes confusing and overwhelming.
As a matter of fact, people in antiquity were just as filled with anguish as we are today, and ancient poetry often preserves the echo of this anguish, which sometimes goes as far as despair. Like us, the ancients bore the burden of the past, the uncertainty of the future, and the fear of death. Indeed, it was for this human anguish that the ancient philosophies—particularly Epicureanism and Stoicism—sought to provide a remedy. These philosophies were therapies, intended to provide a cure for anguish, and to bring freedom and self-mastery, and their goal was to allow people to free themselves from the past and the future, so that they could live within the present.
Philosophical attitudes, or maxims, memorization, and acceptance of which helped to promote mental health. Lifestyle changes, such as the adoption of moderate diet, regulation of sleep, physical exercise, simple clothing, cultivating friendships, etc. Contemplative techniques involving mental imagery, such as visualization of the earth seen from above, or the mental rehearsal of anticipated events, etc.
Rhetorical exercises, involving reading of key texts, discussion of applied philosophical themes, and the keeping of a personal notebook or journal in which verbal exercises are performed on a regular basis. Unfortunately, most of the techniques and concepts involved in classical philosophical therapy must be reconstructed by careful analysis of a wide range of texts that hint at them, take them for granted, or allude to them in passing.
The lack of a clear outline of them handed down to us in the tiny proportion of classical texts that survive today is one reason why they have been largely overlooked in modern times. Fortunately, the process of reconstructing philosophical therapeutic methods has already begun, thanks primarily to the seminal research of the distinguished French academic quoted above, Pierre Hadot, who has published several books on the subject in recent decades. Essentially, all that remains of the once voluminous Stoic literature are The Letters of Seneca, The Discourses and accompanying Handbook of Epictetus, The Meditations of Marcus Aurelius, some fragments from other Stoics, and pieces of commentary scattered among writers of other schools, such as Cicero and Plutarch.
Early Christians believed that Seneca knew the Apostle Paul, who grew up in a predominantly Stoic town called Tarsus, though this is probably a myth. There is little direct relationship between Seneca and Epictetus, who lived a generation later. However, there is good reason to believe that Marcus Aurelius, without having met Epictetus either, was introduced to his Discourses in childhood and practised the methods taught in them throughout his life Hadot, After the death of Marcus Aurelius, however, Christianity gradually came to supplant pagan philosophy, and even suppressed it quite aggressively at the beginning of the Dark Ages.
By this time, however, the practice of Stoicism as an art of living had long since disappeared and philosophy had become a largely bookish and academic subject. Stoic philosophy as psychotherapy What do the surviving texts tell us about Stoicism as therapy of the psyche? In the Tusculan Disputations, he argues that the philosopher will treat diseases of the mind animi morbum in the way that physicians treat diseases of the body, except that the philosopher will primarily be his own physician in this regard, and take care of his own soul Sellars, , pp.
However, it seems that although philosophers primarily focused upon applying therapy to their own psyche, they sometimes also attempted to assist others through their teachings. These modalities can be seen, respectively, as analogous to individual psychotherapy, group therapy workshops and self-help journals or workbooks in modern times. The Stoics would perhaps recognize these modes of therapy as being distant descendants of their own methods.
By contrast, a modern academic professor of philosophy would, no doubt, be looked upon with incredulity by an ancient Socratic philosopher. The Stoics generally disparaged mere rhetoric or wordplay, which they opposed to practical philosophy, or genuine love of wisdom. As Hadot observes, most Hellenistic schools of philosophy shared the assumption that, with patient effort and training, man could rise above his circumstances and learn to conquer his desires and emotions.
The analogy seems all the more self-evident in that the gymnasion, the place where physical exercises were practised, was the same place where philosophy lessons were given; in other words, it was also the place for training in spiritual gymnastics Hadot, , p. However, over the course of European history, philosophers gradually left the open air of the ancient gymnasia and immured themselves in the basements of dusty libraries instead. The practical training, meditative regime, and disciplined lifestyle of the Socratic sects were abandoned.
Philosophy, in short, became little more than a caricature of its former self. We must also contend with the fact that we are dealing with a tradition that spans two ancient languages, Greek and Latin, and the teachings of many individual philosophers living many centuries apart. However, there does seem to be a surprising consistency in the basic theory and practice that emerges upon a close analysis of the surviving texts. Philosophical theories are in the service of the philosophical life. That is why, in the Hellenistic and Roman periods, they were reduced to a theoretical, systematic, highly concentrated nucleus, capable of exercising a strong psychological effect, and easy enough to handle so that it might always be kept close at hand procheiron.
Rather, it was systematic in order that it might provide the mind with a small number of principles, tightly linked together, which derived greater persuasive force and mnemonic effectiveness precisely from such systematisation. Short sayings summed up, sometimes in striking form, the essential dogmas, so that the student might easily relocate himself within the fundamental disposition in which he was to live. Ancient poetry and oratory made use of rhetorical techniques, like metaphor and assonance, which are aesthetically pleasing, but also aided memorization and recall.
Likewise, early philosophers, most notably Socrates, did not write books, but taught small circles of attentive students orally. This has profound implications for a philosophy that aims to be therapeutic. The psychological effects of Stoicism and other therapeutic philosophies depend upon the complete internalization of certain key ideas, or rules of living, and their future recall in the face of stressful situations.
The rhetorical power of oral tuition can assist this process of deep internalization, but so can the deliberate use of a number of traditional mnemonic strategies. The Stoic love of condensing philosophical doctrines into short summative phrases employs the rhetorical technique known as aphorism. These happen to correspond with central principles of Socratic epistemology and ethics, respectively.
At the top of the Stoic hierarchy of dogmata was a handful of core principles from which more elaborate formulations were derived. In this sense, paradoxically, the philosophical framework of Stoicism was both incredibly simple and incredibly complex. However, the fact that Stoic philosophy was encapsulated in short, pithy aphorisms is psychologically very important. In response to a student who complains that learning the Stoic art of living requires too much training and effort, Epictetus replied, What of it? Do you expect that the greatest of arts can be acquired with little study?
And yet the principal doctrine of the philosophers is in itself very succinct. If you have a mind to know it read Zeno, and you will see. What is particular, what universal nature? For instance, hypnotherapists, such as Baudouin, have long referred to the practice of condensing a series of suggestions into a single phrase, or even one word, so that it can be easily repeated as a form of autosuggestion.
We must be able to think of it mechanically; ere long in spite of ourselves, as if we were obsessed by it; in the same way as that in which we listen to the sound of running water. A very simple means of securing this is to condense the idea which is to be the object of the suggestion, to sum it up in a brief phrase which can readily be graven on the memory, and to repeat it over and over again like a lullaby. However, the many references to them in ancient literature make it possible to offer a number of inferences. I would paraphrase them as follows. The All is One. Consciousness that no individual being exists in isolation, but that all things are parts of a larger whole, the universe considered in its spatio-temporal entirety.
The only good is moral good. The only things that matter for us are the things which we ourselves control, our acts of will, decisions, intentions, etc. The brotherhood of man. Human beings are valuable in themselves because they are most similar to us, in so far as they possess knowledge and volition; we should therefore think of all men as one. The here and now. However, although these are undoubtedly fundamental themes in Stoicism, it seems to me that the literature also suggests certain core precepts or maxims.
As we have seen, Epictetus said that the principal doctrine of Stoicism was to follow nature or Zeus , and the essence of goodness is the proper use of impressions. It is to this doctrine that we shall now turn. The fundamental goal of Stoicism appears to have been an attempt to live naturally. Hence, Zeno reputedly said that, for the Stoics, to live according to nature means the same thing as living in accord with human virtue, that is, to fulfil our natural potential for rational living ibid.
They also believed, as we shall continually encounter them saying, that it is important to recognize that which is beyond the sphere of choice or control of a human being, beyond our direct volition, and to accept it accordingly, to act as if we had willed our fortune to be as it is. To be disgruntled at anything that happens is a kind of secession from Nature, which comprises the nature of all things. However, it should be remembered that the meaning of this word in modern society is laden with Christian theological connotations that are alien to ancient Stoic writers. Certain Stoics appear to have been willing to contemplate agnosticism or atheism as consistent with their philosophy.
Rather, it is a way of looking at the world, conceiving the universe itself, in its absolute entirety, as if it were godlike, as being divine, mystical, and sacred in its totality. However, it is Pierre Hadot who must be given credit for expounding in most detail upon the various exercises of a therapeutic nature to be found in classical philosophy. Having surveyed the available literature, he concluded that, although practical philosophical therapeutic exercises askesis are alluded to in many places and books on the subject are seemingly mentioned in other texts, no clear systematic account of them survives today.
He then distinguishes exercises proper to the soul, and those common to the soul and the body. They also include representing things to ourselves in a new way, and wishing and seeking only for things which are truly good—that is to say, purity of moral intent. These remarks by Musonius are precious because they show that the notion of philosophical exercise has its roots in the ideal of athleticism and in the habitual practice of physical culture typical of the gymnasia. Just as the athlete gave new strength and form to his body by means of repeated bodily exercises, so the philosopher developed his strength of soul by means of philosophical exercises, and transformed himself.
This analogy was all the more clear because it was precisely in the gymnasium—the place where physical exercises were practiced—that philosophy lessons were often given as well. Like modern CBT, Stoic philosophy is understood in terms of analogies with physical exercise and medicine. However, philosophy is a psychological therapy rather than a physical one. At this point, it is undoubtedly worth commenting that these metaphors serve to highlight the fact that Stoic psychotherapy is bound to resemble those forms of modern psychotherapy which adopt an educational and skills training orientation, such as CBT, rather than, for example, psychoanalysis.
Epictetus describes his role as follows, in a dialogue with real Stoic students apparently transcribed directly from his seminars. If we were simply to modify the jargon, we could perhaps view this as an ancient predecessor of cognitive—behavioural group therapy sessions. So I am your trainer and you are being trained in my school. And my project is this—to make you unimpeded, unrestricted, free, contented, happy and looking to God in everything great and small [i. And you are here to learn and to practise this.
What is missing? When I see a craftsman who has available material, I expect the artefact. The craftsman is here, and so is the material. What are we lacking? Is the thing not teachable? It is teachable. Is it, then, not up to us? It is the only thing in the world that is so. This alone is naturally unhindered and unimpeded. Tell me the reason. For either it is due to me or to you or to the nature of the thing. The thing itself is possible and the only thing up to us. Therefore the failing is mine or yours or, more truly, it pertains to us both.
Do you want us to begin, here and now, to execute this project? As we have learnt already, this simply means that some things in life are more directly under our voluntary control than others, or, rather, strictly speaking, that only a handful of things are genuinely within our sphere of control. As we have also discussed, the Stoics summarized their philosophy in short precepts, meant for memorization, which were then elaborated at length in discussion or writing. Things not in our control are body, property, reputation, status, and, in one word, whatever are not our own actions. The things in our control are by nature free, unbounded and unhindered; but those not in our control are weak, slavish, constrained, not our own.
Remember, then, that if you suppose things which are naturally slavish to be free, and what belongs to other people to be your own, then you will be enslaved. You will complain, you will be distraught, and you will condemn both gods and men. But if you suppose only that which is your own to be your own, and what belongs to others to belong to others as it really is then no one will ever bully or enslave you.
You will do nothing against your will. No one will hurt you, you will have no enemies, and nothing will harm you because you cannot be harmed. Beck found that depressives tended to show a fundamental pattern of negative cognition in relation to three dimensions: their self, world, and future. REBT distinguished between three major categories of irrational belief, responsible for emotional disturbance, which relate to the following dimensions: their self, life or world , and view of others.
He also compared the notion of unconditional acceptance in REBT to the stoic-sounding advice contained in the Serenity Prayer ibid. Marcus Aurelius outlines the following triadic model: Three relationships: 1. With the body you inhabit; [Self] 2. With the people around you. These terms carried a very different connotation in ancient philosophy, especially within the context of Stoic therapeutics, than they do today.
These three theoretical subjects also appear to correlate with three practical topics in Stoic therapy described, as follows, by Epictetus. There are three areas of study, in which a person who is going to be good and noble must be trained. Contributions from leading experts provide the reader with in-depth discussion of a wide range of topics. The authors elucidate the relative importance of pre- and postoperative radiotherapy and define the role of brachytherapy and primary radiation therapy of inoperable soft tissue sarcomas. In dealing with the treatment of advanced disease the authors analyse the merits of systemic therapy and radiotherapy.
Finally, future prospects are covered, such as cytogenetics, experimental studies on radiosensitivity, and new aspects of systemic treatment. It is an essential and invaluable resource suited to all those involved with histological preparations and applications, from the student to the highly experienced laboratory professional. This is a one stop reference book that the trainee histotechnologist can purchase at the beginning of his career and which will remain valuable to him as he increasingly gains experience in daily practice. Such a presentation facilitates a better understanding of and draws attention to stem cell and cancer biology - two fields that enhance, move, and evolve into each other continuously.
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The team of contributors share amongst them impressive experiences at the laboratory bench and in the clinic. These physician-scientists have dedicated themselves to the tension between the urgency for cures and the technical challenges of discovery. This book emphasizes on the basic ultrasound characteristics of thyroid nodules, the cytology of common and uncommon neoplastic and non-neoplastic processes according to the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology, and provides a technical guide for how to perform ultrasound-guided FNA of thyroid nodules to obtain adequate material for diagnosis.
In the last few decades research has proven that breast cancer can be treated if diagnosed at early stages and proper therapeutic strategy is adopted. Omics-based recent approaches have unveiled the molecular mechanism behind the breast tumorigenesis and aid in identification of next-generation molecular markers for early diagnosis, prognosis and even the effective targeted therapy.
Significant development has taken place in the field of omics in breast cancer in the last decade. The cases have been selected to show the wide range of specimens seen in head and neck pathology and address some of the frequent encountered in these lesions. The goal of this unique book is to provide detailed insight into a wealth of expert experience in such cases, with in-depth review of the expert's analysis and diagnostic process supported by high-quality color photomicrographs and discussion of the diagnostic principles involved in evaluating these lesions.
Head and Neck Pathology is essential reading for surgical pathologists, otolaryngologists and pathologists. In addition it will of interest to pathology and otolaryngology residents and fellows. This authoritative, concise reference book provides an international standard for pathologists and oncologists and will serve as an indispensable guide for use in the design of studies monitoring response to therapy and clinical outcome. Diagnostic criteria, pathological features, and associated genetic alterations are described in a strictly disease-oriented manner.
Sections on all WHO-recognized neoplasms and their variants include new ICD-O codes, incidence, age and sex distribution, location, clinical signs and symptoms, pathology, genetics, and predictive factors. The book, prepared by authors from 28 countries, contains colour photographs, X-rays, computed tomography CT , magnetic resonance MR images, charts, and more than references.
Tables detail specific entities utilizing both clinical and histopathologic features, while in-depth discussions and quality illustrations aid recognition of dermatologic disorders. Appendices include histochemical stains, immunopathology, and electron microscopy. Also included is a special glossary of dermatopathology. The successful focus and format of the previous editions have been preserved. Each lesion and diagnosis is clearly illustrated with the aid of a wealth of digitally enhanced full-color photomicrographs. A concise description of the clinical features, histopathology, differential diagnosis, and the most important characteristics of each lesion provides readers with a quick yet comprehensive overview of each topic covered.
Pathology of Melanocytic Nevi and Malignant Melanoma is the essential reference for every practicing dermatopathologist, pathologist, dermatologist, and cancer research scientist today. Parasitic Diseases of the Lungs is designed as a practical guide for pathologists who encounter parasitic diseases of the lung in their daily routine. The book comprises eight chapters. After discussion of the handling of lung biopsies from patients with suspected parasitic disease, individual chapters focus on Protozoa, Nematoda, Trematoda, and Cestoda.
The morphologic patterns associated with various parasitic infections are then analyzed, and differentiation between artifacts and parasites is discussed. The final chapter is devoted to the immunocompromised patient and covers general principles of histologic evaluation, parasites associated with HIV and AIDS, and the features of diffuse alveolar damage. This practical manual provides a comprehensive yet concise guide to state-of-the-art molecular techniques and their applications.
It starts with an overview of the essential principles of molecular techniques, followed by separate chapters detailing the use of these techniques in particular tissues and organs, and describing recommended treatment plans. Each chapter covers the tests available, their advantages, limitations, and use as diagnostic and prognostic tools, with key learning points at the end of each topic. It has now become a topical subject due to advances in clinical imaging echo, magnetic resonance, computed tomography as well as innovation in technologies of in-vivo diagnosis.
Cardiac Tumor Pathology presents a spectacular example of these advances with clinico-pathologic correlations. This timely volume covers history, epidemiology, demographics, clinical diagnosis, pathology, imaging by echo, CT and MRI of both benign and malignant cardiac tumors, either primary or secondary.
Chemotherapy of malignant neoplasms is also addressed. Special emphasis is given to clinico-pathologic correlations. With all chapters written by experts in their fields, this volume will serve as a useful resource for physicians dealing with, and interested in, this special branch of cardiac oncology and will represent a useful guide for pathologists, clinicians, cardiologists, cardiac surgeons, and radiologists as well as for postgraduate students training in these areas. Recent progress in the application of immunohistochemistry has led to more accurate histological diagnosis of mesothelioma and has made it easier to recognize those nonmesothelial tumors mimicking mesothelioma.
Nonetheless, hematoxylin and eosin-stained preparations remain the mainstay of diagnosis of serous membrane tumors. Thus, due emphasis is placed on conventional histological findings in this new fascicle, while at the same time expanding the coverage of important diagnostic tests such as immunohistochemistry. In addition to the malignant mesotheliomas, attention is given to other mesothelial-related tumors such as primary serous papillary carcinoma of the peritoneum, multicystic mesothelioma, intra-abdominal desmoplastic round cell tumor, adenomatoid tumor, localized fibrous tumor, and the so-called mesothelioma of the atrioventricular node.
Concise tables depict such features as: the differential diagnosis of diffuse malignant mesothelioma; the comparison of histologic features of mesothelial hyperplasia, mesothelioma, and carcinoma; and the immunohistochemistry of peritoneal mesothelioma and serous carcinoma. The fascicle is pages long and includes over illustrations, of which are in color. It should be an essential reference for pathologists in practice and in training.
The second part of this book presents a clear and informative overview of fetal brain pathologies, combining a wealth of detailed images and precise descriptions. Spanning the entire spectrum of cosmetic dermatology, it takes you through the most current medications, cosmeceuticals, and procedures.
Presented in full color, the book is firmly grounded in an evidence-based, clinically-relevant approach--making it perfect for use in everyday practice. Available for the first time as a set, this award winning series provides the only complete record of the development of the human central nervous system from spinal cord gestation through the third trimester.
The contents of the atlases are organized by coronal, sagittal, and horizontal planes of sectioning to ensure that nearly every structure in the developing brain is represented pictorially. It deals with human brain development during the early first trimester from the third through the seventh gestational weeks. Serial sections from 14 specimens are illustrated and annotated in detail, together with 3D reconstructions of the brains of eight specimens. It deals with brain development during the late first trimester.
In contrast, the neurogenesis and neuronal migration are still in progress in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Consequently, the authors chose to focus on the migration, sojourning, and settling of the neuronal populations belonging to these immature structures. With no other atlases available on the development of the human spinal cord and the brain during the third trimester, the first two volumes in the series fill a large void in current knowledge.
Easy to use, the second volume contains high and low magnification photographs of brain sections arranged in two parts: a high resolution black and white image on the left and a This volume provides a user-friendly survey of the complex structural changes that occur during late prenatal human brain development. The diverse subtypes and clinical forms, including different localizations, are depicted and careful attention is paid to evolution and follow-up. While the main focus is on the clinical presentation as reflected in the photographs, diagnostic clues and management considerations are also summarized in a straightforward, readily understandable way.
It contains high quality original clinical pictures, which make the diagnosis easier in this important aspect of clinical dermatological practice. In clinical practice, physicians may observe lesions of the nose or ear only. After identifying the elementary lesion, the clinician can more easily uncover the diagnosis of a local or disseminated or systemic disease with the help of this book.
Major topics include physiopathology, genetic and epigenetic controls, cancer initiating cells, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, growth factors and signalling, cell adhesion, natures of liver metastasis, angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, inflammatory response, prognostic markers, sentinel node and staging, and finally diagnosis and treatment.
It stresses the importance of effective, patient-centered care of hematological patients, requiring a comprehensive clinical insight into the disease processes, and thus provides an integrated clinical and pathological approach. The second part Part B presents different types of nanocarriers applied as skin delivery systems for cosmetics or drugs. The last part Part C shows a wide range of applications of nanotechnology on the skin care area as well as on dermatocosmetic and dermatological fields.
Expert surgeons, all active both as educators and with busy clinical practices, have written concise and practical chapters on the most commonly done procedures while providing much-needed insight on less frequently presentations, as well. The ASCRS Textbook is designed to meet the needs not only of colorectal specialists, but also the general surgeon in practice whose caseload includes patients with disorders and diseases of the colon, rectum and anus.
Residents and fellows will also find a wealth of hands-on guidance and practical tips and tricks. The ASCRS Practice Parameters are incorporated in the book along with an appendix providing the most up-to-the minute access to best practice guidelines. Patient care and safety are addressed in each chapter. Since aging is a major risk factor in connection with a variety of human disorders, it is increasingly becoming a central topic in biochemical and medical research. The plethora of theories on aging — some of which have been discussed for decades — are neither isolated nor contradictory but instead can be connected in a network of pathways and processes at the cellular and molecular levels.
It provides extensive information on the normal placenta, encompassing physiology, metabolism, and endocrinology, and covers the full range of placental diseases in great detail. Further chapters are devoted to abortions, molar pregnancies, multiple pregnancies, and legal considerations. This sixth edition of the book has been extensively revised and expanded to reflect the most recent progress in the field, and a brand new chapter has been added on artificial reproductive technology.
This handbook provides practical information and guidance on topics relevant to directing a coagulation laboratory, filling a void in the literature. Since the first edition, all chapters have been updated and an entirely new chapter is included on pharmacogenomics and pharmacogenetics. The book will aid pathologists, clinical laboratory scientists and other physicians serving as laboratory directors to understand and carry out their responsibilities. John E. Bennett and Raphael Dolin along with new editorial team member Dr.
Martin Blaser have meticulously updated this latest edition to save you time and to ensure you have the latest clinical and scientific knowledge at your fingertips. With new chapters, expanded and updated coverage, increased worldwide perspectives, and many new contributors, Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 8th Edition helps you identify and treat whatever infectious disease you see.
It examines the scope of both legal and forensic medicine, its application and study and has adopted a wide ranging approach including multinational authorship. The book looks at practical applications of legal medicine within various international and intercultural frameworks. This is a seminal authoritative text in legal and forensic medicine. It has a multi-author and multinational approach which crosses national boundaries. There is a great interest in the development of health law and legal medicine institutes around the world and this text comes in on the ground floor of this burgeoning discipline and provides the foundation text for many courses, both undergraduate and postgraduate.
It defines the place of legal medicine as a specialized discipline. It comprises approximately 75 entries that cover the full spectrum of clinically encountered ocular tumors as well as tumor classification and other selected topics. Each entry addressing a given tumor or class of tumors is organized in a standard way, with information on synonyms, definition, etiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, prophylaxis, therapy, prognosis, and epidemiology.
Key references are also provided. The book has the advantage of having been written by members of an ocular oncology group from a leading cancer center, and will be of great practical value for ophthalmologists and ophthalmic pathologists. The special feature of the book is its relevance to neurologists, neurosurgeons and to general physicians and surgeons as well as to pathologists.
In all the contributions, a detailed account of how the non-specialist may approach each specific problem is given. In particular, viral encephalopathy is reviewed; this difficult area is discussed in such a manner as to maximise the information obtained from the material present.
The approach to the examination of the brain described in the book is also directed at a wider audience than simply the generalist who was to do some neuropathological work. Finally, the major clinical problem of dementia is considered. It will serve as a useful reference for physicians hoping to better understand the role of molecular medicine in clinical practice.
In addition, it should also prove to be an invaluable resource for the basic scientist that wants to better understand how advances in the laboratory are being moved from the bench to the bedside. All chapters are written by experts in their fields and include the most up to date medical information. The authors simplify complex genetic concepts and focus on practical patient related issues. The book is divided into nine chapters, explaining uncommon pathology reports with the help of over full colour, annotated clinical images.
This will include direct transplant of healthy fetal tissue into mature patients as well as in hosts with genetic diseases. Transplant techniques, donor-host interaction, cell and tissue storage, ethical and legal issues, are some of the matters which the book will deal with. The book will include advances in both theory and practice in the last two decades. Bibbo: Comprehensive Cytopathology, 4th ed.
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This accessible guide to diagnostic investigation and screening is ideal for daily laboratory use, taking a systematic approach to helping you understand major diagnostic criteria as well as the pitfalls and limitations of cytology. Appealing to dermatologists, allergists, family practitioners, and pediatricians, as well as physician scientists, medical students, and experimental investigators, this stand-alone text addresses recent breakthrough discoveries in genetics and milestones in immunological research in dermatology.
This book presents a simple, logical method for constructing a differential diagnosis based on pathology and clinical presentation. It also provides advice on the selection of ancillary molecular, immunohistochemical and genetic techniques to establish a definitive diagnosis. It covers the most common and clinically important inflammatory disorders of the skin through an image-rich easy to read format.
Each section includes practical tips to help navigate the differential diagnosis.
ns1.yepi10games.org/repentance-the-first-word-of-the-gospel.php Microscopic features are listed as bullet points to enhance readability. Examples of diagnostic comments that practicing pathologists can utilize in their own reports are also provided. Demonstrating a global understanding of inflammatory dermatoses in a quick and efficient manner, Inflammatory Dermatopathology: A Pathologist's Survival Guide will both guide the reader in how to approach inflammatory dermatoses, as well as provide a tool that will help with the writing of surgical pathology reports.
It includes historical perspectives, current indications, surgical techniques, and practical aspects of the cytological preparation of ophthalmic fine needle aspiration samples. This edition not only covers the how of clinical testing but also places greater emphasis on the what, why, and when in order to help today's students fully understand the implications of the information covered, as well as the applicability of this crucial topic in practice.
Every practitioner of plastic and reconstructive surgery will find useful information in this comprehensive, in-depth text, including an update on the changes and advances of the last several years and a new section on pediatric consideration. Detailed chapters on ophthalmic anatomy are also included, as well as sections on eyelid dermatology, socket surgery, and cosmetic surgery. Every consideration has been made by Dr. Nesi and his co-editors to cover every aspect important to the ophthalmic plastic surgeon. Bland, MD, and Edward M.
- SAGE Books - Cognitive Behavioural Therapy in Mental Health Care.
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Copeland, III, MD, is a surgical reference that offers the most comprehensive, up-to-date resource on the diagnosis and management of, and rehabilitation following, surgery for benign and malignant diseases of the breast. With its multidisciplinary approach, sweeping updates, new contributors, and authoritative guidance, you'll have exactly what you need to inspire patient confidence and provide the best possible outcomes. Best of all, this new edition comes to you in print and online for easy, convenient access to the absolute latest advances. The latest antithrombotic and newest anticoagulant drugs are included, along with coverage of special patients and complications.
All relevant aspects of the genus and its 13 species are covered in detail within 11 chapters. The first chapter reviews the long and controversial history of the genus, while the second describes all mycological characteristics of the different species, including media and techniques adapted to their isolation, description, and maintenance. Subsequent chapters methodically address issues such as the effect of Malassezia yeasts on human and animal health, and the current therapeutic approaches for Malassezia-induced or -exacerbated diseases.
The last chapter provides a summary of data to be presented on a website that will be regularly updated, thus incorporating latest findings. The text covers common thyroid biopsies, parathyroid biopsies that are frequent surgical specimens, and uncommon aspirates that may be mistaken for thyroid. Coverage includes state-of-the-art information on immunohistochemistry, molecular diagnostics, and laser scanning cytometry.
Bridging the gap between classical clinical parasitology texts and traditional encyclopedic treatises, Human Parasitology appeals to students interested in the medical aspects of parasitology and those who require a solid foundation in the biology of parasites. This fourth edition has been fully revised to integrate the most recent molecular discoveries about mosquitoes, ticks and other arthropods as vectors, as well as the most effective therapeutic regimens.
The volume includes for each major cancer type, a comprehensive although concise discussion of epidemiology, affirmed and innovative biomarkers for diagnosis, and descriptions of the relevant genes for prognosis and individualized therapy through biotarget-specific new molecular treatments, with the latest information on the validation status of each novel biomarker.
Individual chapters are dedicated to the major cancer types, plus a special chapter on metastasis. The present debate on patentability of genetic information applied to diagnostics and therapeutics of cancer is also discussed. Bolognia, MD, Joseph L. Jorizzo, MD, and Julie V. Schaffer, MD, is an all-encompassing medical reference book that puts the latest practices in dermatologic diagnosis and treatment at your fingertips. It delivers more comprehensive coverage of basic science, clinical practice, pediatric dermatology, and dermatologic surgery than you'll find in any other source.
Whether you're a resident or an experienced practitioner, you'll have the in-depth, expert, up-to-the-minute answers you need to overcome any challenge you face in practice. In addition to a section on fundamentals, the book provides detailed coverage of current practices bioassays, molecular analysis, and nervous system pathology and practical aspects data interpretation, regulatory considerations, and tips for preparing reports.
Diagnostic Imaging of Musculoskeletal Diseases: A Systematic Approach is a useful and worthy teaching text that is at once readable by the radiology resident rotating through the musculoskeletal radiology and thorough enough to be used by the practicing radiologist. Written by authors who are well established in the field of musculoskeletal radiology and pathology, this volume provides readers with a practical and systematic approach to think about diagnosis of pathologic conditions that affect the musculoskeletal system, thus making the material easier to learn and synthesize.
Chapters are organized by major categories of disease: trauma, infection, tumors and tumor-like conditions, metabolic diseases, dysplastic diseases and arthritis. Additional chapters examine basic interventional techniques that apply to musculoskeletal imaging and in recognition of the importance of orthopedic procedures, information is included on the use, imaging, appearance, and pathology affecting prostheses and fixation devices. Diagnostic Imaging of Musculoskeletal Diseases: A Systematic Approach is an exceptionally important new text that contains information essential to the practice of modern radiology.
It covers the full range of relevant conditions: inherited skin disorders; nevi; viral, bacterial, fungal, and parasitic infections; acne; allergic diseases; autoimmune skin disorders; connective tissue diseases; tumors; and miscellaneous conditions. Each comparison addresses the differential diagnosis between two or occasionally three or four dermatological conditions, containing between two and six images and a short text emphasizing the clinical differences between the diseases in question. At the end of each chapter, a summary highlights one or two characteristics essential for the differential diagnosis.
The author is an expert who, since , has been responsible for a column devoted to the differential diagnosis of pediatric dermatology in the European Journal of Pediatric Dermatology. The volume will represent an ideal tool for pediatric dermatologists, pediatricians, and GPs, and will help them in the diagnostic process. It will be indispensable for clinical research laboratories, hospitals, medical schools, and applied and pharmaceutical research laboratories.
This Atlas of Medical Renal Pathology provides an overview of the development, macroscopic and microscopic features of the normal kidney. This is followed by a comprehensive survey of developmental and cystic kidney diseases, vascular diseases and tubulointerstitial diseases. An emphasis is placed on gross diagnostic findings with detailed histological correlates. In addition, the histological, immunofluorescent, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features of the major glomerular diseases and renal transplantation pathology are presented. This compendium of non-neoplastic kidney diseases illustrates the vast majority diseases you are likely to encounter in surgical and autopsy pathology.
This authoritative, concise reference book provides an international standard for oncologists and pathologists and will serve as an indispensable guide for use in the design of studies monitoring response to therapy and clinical outcome. This book also provides user-friendly algorithmic approaches to the diagnosis of the major tumours of the digestive tract. Sections on all recognized neoplasms and their variants include new ICD-O codes, incidence, age and sex distribution, location, clinical signs and symptoms, pathology, genetics, and predictive factors.
The book, prepared by more than authors from 22 countries, contains some colour photographs, numerous tables and figures and more than references. Comprehensive in scope, this title begins with a look at normal anatomy and histology for each organ system Practical guidance in daily urological pathology sign-out and the latest recommended diagnostic approaches - with an emphasis on clinicopathologic and radiographic-pathologic correlations - makes this a true diagnostic decision-making medical reference.
A consistent format enables you to locate critical information quickly, and more than high-quality illustrations - most in full color - make diagnosis even easier. Filled with highly instructional visual images, this atlas covers typical and atypical presentations of viral, fungal and parasitic agents and offers insightful comments aiding their identification and clinical significance. Drawing on the expertise of a distinguished clinical microbiologist, it presents more than colored photomicrographs derived from an extensive personal collection of slides depicting the salient and unusual presentations of microorganisms.
Written by experts in the field, this Nutshell offers insight on establishing professional relationships and examines negligence-based claims, intentional torts, causation, damages, affirmative defenses, limitations, immunities, and liabilities. It also provides an overview of medical care liability issues affecting hospitals and managed care organizations.
The book presents a detailed account of the most important procedures for the analysis of data, from the calculation of simple proportions, to a variety of statistical tests, and the use of regression models for modeling of clinical outcomes. The level of mathematics is kept to a minimum to make the material easily accessible to the novice, and a multitude of illustrative cases are included in every chapter, drawn from the current research literature.
The new edition has been completely revised and updated and includes new chapters on basic quantitative methods, measuring survival, measurement scales, diagnostic testing, bayesian methods, meta-analysis and systematic reviews. The AD-associated pathology is illustrated from its beginnings sometimes even in childhood to its final form, which is reached late in life. The AD process commences much earlier than the clinically recognizable phase of the disorder, and its timeline includes an extended preclinical phase.
Coverage is not limited to findings from the light microscope but also includes other genetic, molecular, and immunologic diagnostic modalities, and the unique orientation allows the reader to follow the progression of disease states from incipient to advanced. This book is illustrated with more than color photomicrographs and accompanied by a CD-ROM of all images in downloadable format.
Imaging Informatics Professionals IIPs have come to play an indispensable role in modern medicine, and the scope of this profession has grown far beyond the boundaries of the PACS. A successful IIP must not only understand the PACS itself, but also have knowledge of clinical workflow, a base in several medical specialties, and a solid IT capability regarding software interactions and networking. With the introduction of a certification test for the IIP position, a single source was needed to explain the fundamentals of imaging informatics and to demonstrate how those fundamentals are applied in everyday practice.
Practical Imaging Informatics describes the foundations of information technology and clinical image management, details typical daily operations, and discusses rarer complications and issues. We are experiencing an epidemic of well-differentiated thyroid cancer, in part due to the widespread use of imaging modalities that detect thyroid nodules and microcarcinomas. Concurrently, there have been a number of recent advances in surgical treatment, as well as diagnostic modalities that allow us to detect small amounts of residual local and metastatic disease.
Additionally, a reexamination of past treatment regimens has led to new recommendations regarding the use of radioactive iodine, and to new therapeutic options, such as targeted therapy which have supplanted the use of more toxic chemotherapy for metastatic cancer.
Multiple academic organizations have developed consensus guidelines for the management of thyroid cancer, occasionally with conflicting recommendations. In Thyroid Cancer, a renowned group of authors presents a broad overview of the pathology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of thyroid cancer, with an emphasis on recent evidence-based information.
State-of-the-art and a significant contribution to the literature, Thyroid Cancer is an invaluable reference for endocrinologists, oncologists, nuclear medicine physicians, radiation oncologists, primary care physicians, and surgeons who deal with head and neck cancer. Also discusses underlying mechanism of diseases. A brand-new editorial team of Drs. Maarten W.
Taal, Glenn M. Chertow, Philip A.